Table of Contents
Scaffolding is a platform that is built temporarily and is used to support labor or goods when working above a height. Several types of scaffolding are as follows;
- Independent Scaffolding: Scaffolding equipped with 2 or more poles connected to one another transversely or longitudinally
- Modular Scaffolding: Scaffolding made by fabrication including cross frame
- Hanging Scaffolding: Independent scaffolding that is suspended from a fixed building structure and cannot be lowered or lifted
- Scaffolding Frame : Scaffolding that is made by fabrication including cross frames
- Mobile Scaffolding : Scaffolding that stands alone is equipped with wheels under the pillars and can be moved
- Tube scaffolding: Scaffolding that uses pipes as poles, cross frames and other reinforcement and uses clamps as binders.
Installation and use of scaffolding
Some of the stages of scaffolding installation can be seen below:
- Scaffolds may only be erected or dismantled by a scaffolder
- Personnel installing or dismantling scaffolds or working above height must wear full body harness
- The scaffold that has been erected can only be used if the inspector has installed a green scaffold card
- Each scaffolding that has been installed must be given a serial number, and recorded in the inspection check list so that it is easy to monitor
- Scaffolding must be inspected daily to ensure the completeness and safety of the user
- It is strictly forbidden to dismantle or modify the scaffold if one is not a scaffolder
- If the scaffolding is incomplete or in an unsafe condition, a red tag must be attached
- The ladder used must be tied at the top so it doesn’t fall
- If anyone is working on scaffolding, a warning line must be installed
- It is strictly forbidden to install, disassemble or work on the scaffold during rain or strong winds
- It is forbidden to ride on the scaffolding excessively either goods or people so they don’t collapse
- The board size for the scaffold platform is at least 3cm cm thick and 50 cm wide
- It is strictly forbidden to paint the boards used as work floors
- Scaffolding made from frames must be in good condition, not rusty, not bent and complete with cross bracing, safety pins and catwalks that can be locked.
In the structure of the scaffold establishment there are many kinds of parts that cannot be separated from the scaffold, these components are.
Vertical pole (standard)
Is the main pillar of scaffolding construction, vertical poles must stand based on / on Base plates or Jack Base on an uneven basis, the standard must be equipped with a sole board
Ledger (longitudinal girder)
The ledger functions as a tie between the vertical posts and to form a lift on the scaffolding and as a transom support, between the standard and the ledger must be fastened with a dead clamp (right angle coupler).
Transom (transverse girder)
The transom is installed above the ledger to support the platform / work area. not allowed to install the transom under the ledger, and must use a dead clamp (right angle coupler).
Bracing (cross pipe)
Function as a reinforcement / create stiffness in the scaffolding construction. Must be tied with a live clamp (Swivel Coupler).
Guardrail / Handrail (bar safety)
The handrail is installed above the midrail and must be tied to function as a safety bar so that people do not fall while on the platform.
Timber Sole / Sole board (Alas board)
Timber sole is placed under the vertical pole, under the base plates or jack base. Its function is to hold the vertical poles from sinking on a soft surface, and also serves to distribute the load on the vertical poles, spread evenly on a wider runway.
Base Plates (base plate)
Base Plates are installed above the timber sole and below as a vertical plinth. Its function is to prevent damage to the end of the vertical pole and keep the vertical pole from shifting and nailing it to the timber sole.
Jack Base (base plate that can be manipulated)
Jack Base is used for vertical pole foundation if the base of the scaffolding is uneven, because the jack base can be adjusted to raise and lower the vertical pole.
Swivel Coupler (live clamp)
Swivel Coupker is only used to tie cross pipes or connect.
Right Angle Coupler (clamp dead)
Right Angle Coupler is only used to tie horizontal pipes to vertical pipes.
Joint Pin (connector)
Joint Pin is used as a connection between the ends of the pipe.
Who is the scaffolder?
A scaffolder is a person who has scaffolding certification and is permitted to build scaffolding. The requirements that must be owned by the scaffolder, are:
Have normal health, as stated by a doctor’s certificate
- Do not have physical and mental disabilities
- Can distinguish colors / clear vision (not color blind)
- Not nervous, careless and has a good hearing
- Do not have a mental disability
- Can concentrate well
- Not easily nervous (nervous) when at a height
- Able to work with others, have a firm leadership spirit
• Can control emotions, be patient and calm under any circumstances
• Not careless and have calculations, Discipline, diligent and responsible
4. Duties of a scaffolder
A scaffolder has tasks in the field that must be carried out in order to avoid accidents arising from scaffolding. These tasks include:
- Checking scaffolding materials or materials for damage or defects that are not suitable for use
- Check the completeness of scaffolding equipment, safety devices such as: safety belts, safety nets, etc
- Carry out safe working methods and procedures for workers who use scaffolding made by scaffolding experts (scaffolder)
- Helping to provide guidance to workers to use working time efficiently, scope and implement work procedures that have been set especially for work with scaffolding
- Caring for scaffolding and its parts so they can still be used, scaffolding operators only carry out installation, maintenance and dismantling based on plans or designs made by supervisors / experts in the field of scaffolding.
Scaffolding safety procedures
The procedures that must be carried out in order to avoid the danger of an accident on scaffolding must be carried out properly, and obeyed by everyone who works with scaffolding, or for the scaffold itself. So that the process of erecting and using scaffolding is safe and there are no accidents for workers working on or on scaffolding, scaffolding safety procedures must be implemented. These procedures include:
- wear work clothes that are neat, not tight or too loose
- wear a safety hat
- wear safety shoes
- wearing leather gloves
- use scaffolding key covers (scaffold key house)
- wearing full body harness
Scaffolding installation, maintenance and dismantling
In order for scaffolding to be used safely, in the process of installation, maintenance and dismantling, the methods or procedures that must be carried out by a scaffolder must be considered.
Before starting the erection (establishment) of scaffolding, the first thing you need to pay attention to is the condition of the ground (ground) make sure it won’t slide/sink if the base condition is soil, if the concrete base is concrete check the thickness. Check all material conditions (pipes, clamps, boards, etc.) before being taken to the site. The scaffolder is also responsible for checking material conditions.
Before starting to build scaffolding, make sure the surrounding conditions are safe, there are no power cables on it, not too close to excavation holes, no lifting work around the scaffolding installation site.
The safety officer works together with the previous supervisor providing briefings on regulations and safe work methods (tool box meeting), also inspects all work equipment and work safety equipment for each scaffolder.
- The location around the erection of scaffolding must be barricaded and place a notice board.
- All scaffolding locks must be securely strapped.
- It is not justified to throw all scaffolding material on top, in installation you have to use a mine to lower and raise the material.
How to install scaffolding depends on the place where the scaffolding will be made. The method above is for standard scaffolding (main pillars) resting on the ground, for example independent scaffolds. For scaffolding that is suspended or on top of a construction building, for example hanging scaffold what must be done is to make a barrier or bind it first to the construction structure. Components of scaffolding which are commonly used as binders can be hand drills, transoms, ledgers depending on the position of the scaffolding with the main building.
Treatment of the scaffold
Scaffolding maintenance is absolutely necessary to maintain the condition of the scaffolding so that it is not damaged and can always be used in a safe condition. The most important things from scaffolding maintenance before use, are:
The scaffolding must be previously inspected by an authorized officer/scaffolding inspector to ensure the scaffolding is fit for use or not. Scaffolding should be re-inspected once a week (7 days) or after high winds/bad weather. So that it can be known earlier if it is damaged.
The scaffolding must be inspected by the wearer every day to ensure that the working floor is in good condition and is not loose or lost. Scaffolding that is suitable for use must be equipped with a green scaffold tag (green tag) which means it is safe to use. Scaffolding that is not ready for use or where one of the scaffolding parts is missing or detached must be accompanied by a red tag which means it is not safe to use.
In carrying out the demolition, we must not just remove the installed scaffolding parts, because if the demolition is carried out without / not in accordance with the provisions, accidents can occur.
What needs to be considered is?
Before starting the dismantling of the scaffolding, the location around the demolition must be provided with barricades and notice boards. The dismantling of scaffolding must be done by the person who installed it, and must start at the top.
Never dismantle scaffolding starting from the bottom or the middle, from the scaffolding construction. Scaffolding may not be dismantled one of its constructions, unless it still guarantees the safety of the user, or with permission from the authorized supervisor. In unloading the scaffolding material for demolition, you have to use mines to lower them one by one.
It is not permitted to throw down all scaffolding material during demolition. All materials that have been dismantled must be neatly arranged and must not be left scattered and stored in a safe place that does not interfere with road access.
Scaffold Safety Inspection
Occupational Safety Inspection is an effort and effort to detect substandard conditions and substandard actions and correct them immediately before these unsafe conditions and actions can cause an accident.
Scaffolding inspection is a process of systematically inspecting the physical condition of a scaffolding construction object where work accidents may occur.
Purpose Of Inspection
Basically the implementation of scaffolding inspections is to ensure that the scaffolding can be used safely and is in accordance with the procedures set out in the use of scaffolding.
Purpose Of Inspection
Basically the implementation of a scaffolding inspection is to ensure that the scaffolding can be used safely and is in accordance with the procedures set out in the use of scaffolding. There are three (3) types of scaffolding inspections that must be carried out by a scaffolding inspector. The three checks are:
- In this inspection, the things that must be checked include:
- Location where scaffolding will be erected: namely, grounding capabilities, disturbances and obstacles that may arise from the installation of scaffolding
- Scaffolding drawings and capabilities: namely, the use, type, capacity, and list of scaffolding equipment
- Personnel or executors: namely, persons in charge, certified scaffolders and helpers
- Field inspection: namely, knowing the location, scaffolder certificate and condition of equipment
Check During Installation
Personnel equipment (personnel equipment): namely, self-protection (PPE), tools (tools), and tools. Implementation of installation, namely, securing the location, installing scafftag and how to use it. Final inspection of work (Finishing): namely, the ability of scaffolding according to drawings, safety equipment, passages for people and stairs.
- Periodic checks (daily & weekly): namely, bond strength of bolts and nuts, edge guards, baseboards, reinforcement and supports
- Monthly inspection: namely, testing of baseboards, testing of ladders, material lifting equipment, rigging and inspection of unused scaffolding.
Methods of carrying out inspections / inspection procedures
The inspection is carried out to check that everything is in a safe condition, because sometimes there are parts of the scaffolding that don’t exist/change from their places.
How to inspect scaffolding, namely:
Before carrying out an inspection, the scaffold inspector must first prepare a checklist. This checklist contains the items or parts of the scaffold to be inspected Inspection is carried out from the base of the scaffolding structure, according to the contents of the checklist Inspection is done visually (by looking) or by going up the scaffold and inspecting its parts The data obtained is then entered into the inspection checklist by ticking the parts in the checklist according to what is there, in good condition or not.
If errors or violations are found in setting up the scaffold (incomplete scaffolding), then what the inspector must do is:
- Put a red tag (red color code), which means the scaffold is not safe to use
- Notify the foremen scaffold about the error and must be repaired immediately
- Repairs may only be carried out by a scaffolder
- Create a shock card or anomaly report.